We are interested in how the body’s tissues respond to mechanical forces, both as a part of normal function and in injury, such as in physical trauma or when a nerve is compressed.
A major part of our neural injury research involves understanding how injuries occur in road trauma, which is a leading cause of death and disabling injury in Australia, for both adults and children.
We are studying how these injuries occur, and how changes to the types and design of restraints used by children and passengers in the rear seat of cars can reduce serious injuries and death.
Lead by Prof Lynne Bilston, a major part of our research is directed toward understanding the mechanisms of spinal injury in children, and to improving the restraints used by children in car crashes.
Key problems include whether children use restraints correctly and whether they use restraints that are appropriate for their size, and whether the rear seat restraints perform as well as those for front seat passengers.
Fundamental to this work is understanding the differences between injuries in children and in adults. We are investigating how their body tissues are different, including their size, how much load they can tolerate, how stiff they are, and how these factors, along with developmental changes, affect the types of injury that children sustain.
We use MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance elastography, to measure the stiffness of body tissues in live human subjects in ways that have previously been impossible.
This technique also has applications beyond road trauma research; there are also changes in tissue stiffness in some diseases, such as cancer, which is what allows us to detect breast cancer lumps, for example. We are using this technique to examine changes in brain tissue in brain cancer, in a condition called hydrocephalus (fluid accumulation in the brain) and also in muscles after injury.
Magnetic Resonance Elastography
We are using this new MRI technique to measure the stiffness of the brain, muscles and other tissues. This method uses an external vibration in the tissue, the propagation of which is measured with the MRI scanner to estimate the stiffness and viscosity of the tissue. The stiffness changes with age and in some diseases, so this research may help us develop better methods of diagnosis of diseases of the brain and muscle, such as hydrocephalus, sleep apnoea, and muscle injury.
Effects of mechanical loads on the nervous system
We are studying how mechanical forces affect the tissues of the human nervous system. This research ranges from spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury to chronic conditions such as syringomyelia and hydrocephalus. Recent work on the mechanical factors in spinal cord injury has shown that the difference in spinal cord injury incidence and severity between adults and children is influenced both by fundamental differences in the spinal column flexibility and stiffness, and differences in intrinsic spinal cord tissue responses to mechanical loading.
Upper airway biomechanics
We are studying the mechanical properties and motion of muscles that surround the upper airway and how these change in people with sleep apnoea.