Rhoshel received her medical degree and training in Adult, Child, and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of New Mexico in the United States. She began her work in psychiatric research in New Mexico with a project using spectroscopy to study glutamate abnormalities in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia. She then moved to Bethesda, Maryland, to work on longitudinal studies of brain development with the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institutes of Mental Health. There her research focussed on understanding influences on brain development, including sex differences, the impact of having different numbers of sex chromosomes, and twin studies to parse out the relative of influences of genetic and environmental factor across development. In May of 2009 Rhoshel relocated to Sydney to begin her work at NeuRA and UNSW using neuroimaging techniques to study healthy and atypical brain development in children and adolescents.