Nerve damage is a very common side effect of many current cancer treatments, limiting the amount of treatment that patients can receive and often resulting in irreversible damage, leaving patients with life-long neurological symptoms including pain, numbness, weakness and difficulty walking. The mechanisms underlying this nerve damage are not understood and there are currently no established treatments or preventative strategies. Using new nerve testing protocols that measure nerve function in the clinical setting, over 1000 studies have now been undertaken in cancer patients to reveal new insights into the development of nerve damage following cancer treatment. These studies have identified patients most at-risk of developing severe “neurotoxic” symptoms following treatment for a range of cancers, particularly breast and bowel cancer. These biomarkers identify 80% of patients at-risk of developing severe neurological symptoms, providing early identification of susceptible patients.