Girl with a frowning face drawn on paper in front of her own face

Childhood disorders


Understanding the causes of mood and behavioural disorders


Mood disorders

Occasional feelings of depression or anxiety are a normal part of life. When these become so severe or persistent that they significantly impact how one feels most of the time, or affect one’s day to day functioning, it may signal the presence of a mood disorder such as depression or bipolar disorder. Although less common than in adults, children and adolescents can also suffer from mood disorders. These can appear somewhat different in young people: for example, a child with depression may be more likely to show this as irritability than sadness. Children and adolescents may also have more difficulty in identifying and communicating about their feelings than adults.

Many factors can contribute to a child or adolescent developing a mood disorder. Mood disorders can run in families, and many genes have been linked to risk for depression and bipolar disorder, but other factors such as stress and physical health problems can also be important. As mood disorders become more common during adolescence, it is likely factors associated with development such as puberty also play a role.

Behavioural disorders

It is normal for children to occasionally be naughty, defiant or impulsive from time to time. Behavioural disorders, however, occur when this behaviour is extremely difficult or challenging beyond what would be considered normal for their age.

The most common behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  ODD is associated with a persistent pattern of an angry or irritable mood, being argumentative, or vindictiveness. Conduct disorder involves doing things that violate the rights of other people or major societal norms, such as threatening people, starting fights, theft, and vandalizing. ADHD is not necessarily associated with being defiant or breaking rules, but young people with ADHD who are very impulsive may find themselves getting in trouble anyway. Not all children with ADHD are hyperactive: some instead have problems with being organized and sustaining attention, which can also affect things like social interactions and sport, as well as school performance.


An MRI study of emotion processing in boys

The goal of this study is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to better understand brain activity in children with different kinds of conduct problems, and to determine whether an intervention to change visual attention in children with conduct problems affects brain activity and emotional responses in response to signs of distress in others.

Like Father Like Son: Fathers Against Violence and Aggression

A national collaboration of health researchers, clinicians, policy leaders and consumer groups to put into place a range of innovative strategies such as web-based parenting programs to enhance participation of fathers and creating changes in policy and clinical practice at a national level.

What else is happening in Childhood disorders research at NeuRA?


Ten siblings. One third live (or have passed away) with dementia.

The scourge of dementia runs deep in Lorna Clement's family. Of the eleven children her dear parents raised, four live (or have passed away) with complications of the disease. Her mother also died of Alzheimer's disease, bringing the family total to five. This is the mystery of dementia - One family, with two very different ageing outcomes. You will have read that lifestyle is an important factor in reducing the risk of dementia. We also know diet is a key factor, and an aspect that Dr Ruth Peter's is exploring at NeuRA. Along with leading teams delivering high profile evidence synthesis work in the area of dementia risk reduction, Dr Peters has a particular interest in hypertension (that is, high blood pressure) and in the treatment of hypertension in older adults. “We have known for a while that treating high blood pressure reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, but it is becoming clearer that controlling blood pressure may also help to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Now we need to know what the best blood pressure is to protect brain health.” You are invited to read more about Lorna's story and Dr Peter's work, by clicking 'Read the full story' below. Please support dementia research at NeuRA Will you consider a gift today to help Dr Peter's unlock the secrets of healthy ageing and reduce the risk of dementia? Research into ageing and dementia at NeuRA will arm doctors and other medical professionals with the tools they need to help prevent dementia in our communities. Thank you for your support.