NeuRA Magazine #19

Schizophrenia research

IQ CHANGE RELATED TO BRAIN VOLUME

Understanding the difference in IQ before and after the onset of schizophrenia could lead to more tailored treatments down the line.

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, although they can differ from person to person, are one of the core symptoms of the disorder. Earlier work from Associate Professor Tom Weickert’s lab proposed an IQ-based classification system, centred on IQ trajectories from before illness to after illness onset that could identify three distinct subgroups of schizophrenia.

These three subgroups included those who had a large and significant IQ decrease from before to after illness onset (called the deteriorated group); those whose IQ did not appear to change after illness onset staying around or above average before and after illness onset (called the preserved group); and those who displayed consistently low IQ levels before and after illness onset (called the compromised group).

A new study from the Schizophrenia Lab, has built on their earlier classification work by establishing whether these different intellectual subgroups are associated with any structural changes in the brain. The group examined differences in brain volume and were able to confirm that the IQ-based classifications are related to underlying neurobiological differences, and that distinct brain regions may be differentially affected in each subgroup.

The study found that the deteriorated group could be further divided into two subsets – moderately and severely deteriorated subgroups. The severely deteriorated subgroup had significantly reduced brain volume in regions of the brain important for memory, social cognition, language and visual processing, which correspond to more severe negative symptoms (reduced emotions, motivation and social interactions) in comparison to the preserved group.

Our recent findings on cognitive IQ-based subgroups provides a strategy to aid in the prediction of how each subgroup would respond to novel therapies to improve cognition and functional abilities in people with schizophrenia.

To access to the NeuRA Magazine #19 Volunteer opportunities story click here

See what’s going on at NeuRA

FEEL THE BUZZ IN THE AIR? US TOO.

Brain and Knee Muscle Weakness Study

Why Does Quadriceps Weakness Persist after Total Knee Replacement? An Exploration of Neurophysiological Mechanisms Total knee replacement is a commonly performed surgery for treating end-staged knee osteoarthritis. Although most people recover well after surgery, weakness of the quadriceps muscles (the front thigh muscles) persists long after the surgery (at least for 12 months), despite intensive physiotherapy and exercise. Quadriceps muscle weakness is known to be associated with more severe pain and greatly affect daily activities. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms underlying weakness of the quadriceps muscles in people with knee osteoarthritis and total knee replacement. We hope to better understand the relationship between the changes of the brain and a loss of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee replacement. The study might be a good fit for you if you: Scheduled to undergo a total knee replacement; The surgery is scheduled within the next 4 weeks; Do not have a previous knee joint replacement in the same knee; Do not have high tibial osteotomy; Do not have neurological disorders, epilepsy, psychiatric conditions, other chronic pain conditions; Do not have metal implants in the skull; Do not have a loss of sensation in the limbs. If you decide to take part you would: Be contacted by the researcher to determine your eligibility for the study Be scheduled for testing if you are eligible and willing to take part in the study Sign the Consent Form when you attend the first testing session Attend 3 testing sessions (approximately 2 hours per session): 1) before total knee replacement, 2) 3 months and 3) 6 months after total knee replacement. The testing will include several non-invasive measures of brain representations of the quadriceps muscles, central pain mechanisms, and motor function and questionnaires. Will I be paid to take part in the research study? You will be reimbursed ($50.00 per session) for travel and parking expenses associated with the research study visits. If you would like more information or are interested in being part of the study, please contact: Name: Dr Wei-Ju Chang Email: w.chang@neura.edu.au Phone: 02 9399 1260 This research is being funded by the Physiotherapy Research Foundation.  
PROJECT