NeuRA Magazine #20

UNDERSTANDING SOFT TISSUE CHANGES IN CHILDREN

Dr Lauriane Jugé with a device used as part of the study

When human tissue, such as muscles or some organs, are affected by disease, they can become stiffer than surrounding muscle tissue. Traditionally, medical practitioners have used the palpation technique – using their hands to determine the firmness of tissue, for instance around the abdomen – to feel for changes in tissue stiffness in order to diagnose illness or disease.

While this is an effective technique, not all tissue is accessible to a physician’s hand. In these cases magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a non-invasive medical imaging technique, has been developed to assess the stiffness of tissue such as the brain.

Prof Lynne Bilston’s team, which includes Dr Lauriane Jugé is particularly interested in changes in tissue stiffness in the brain and muscles and how this changes in neurological and muscle disorders. During their research they came to realise that while there is a lot of data on stiffness in adult tissue, there was little to none when it came to children. To answer this they are working on new methods to measure the properties of tissue when it is in use or under stress, either as a result of accident or disease.

One of the areas they are particularly interested in studying involves keeping children safe during car accidents. Current injury criteria and anthropomorphic test dummies, for example, are based on scaling adult anatomy to match children’s anatomy. Despite this, the dummies use adult tissue properties, even thought there is evidence that this can result in flawed injury criteria that cannot predict injury outcome in real children.

One of their current studies involves using MRE and diffusion tension imaging to find a more accurate way to assess and measure soft tissue changes in children. In doing this they hope to be able to quantify the mechanical properties and microstructure of tissues in healthy children in order to better predict the responses of these tissues in situations such as car accidents or disease. They’re confident that they will be able to fill in the critical gap in knowledge to so they can create accurate computational models of the body for use in child injury prevention, and other medically-related fields.

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Brain and Knee Muscle Weakness Study

Why Does Quadriceps Weakness Persist after Total Knee Replacement? An Exploration of Neurophysiological Mechanisms Total knee replacement is a commonly performed surgery for treating end-staged knee osteoarthritis. Although most people recover well after surgery, weakness of the quadriceps muscles (the front thigh muscles) persists long after the surgery (at least for 12 months), despite intensive physiotherapy and exercise. Quadriceps muscle weakness is known to be associated with more severe pain and greatly affect daily activities. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms underlying weakness of the quadriceps muscles in people with knee osteoarthritis and total knee replacement. We hope to better understand the relationship between the changes of the brain and a loss of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee replacement. The study might be a good fit for you if you: Scheduled to undergo a total knee replacement; The surgery is scheduled within the next 4 weeks; Do not have a previous knee joint replacement in the same knee; Do not have high tibial osteotomy; Do not have neurological disorders, epilepsy, psychiatric conditions, other chronic pain conditions; Do not have metal implants in the skull; Do not have a loss of sensation in the limbs. If you decide to take part you would: Be contacted by the researcher to determine your eligibility for the study Be scheduled for testing if you are eligible and willing to take part in the study Sign the Consent Form when you attend the first testing session Attend 3 testing sessions (approximately 2 hours per session): 1) before total knee replacement, 2) 3 months and 3) 6 months after total knee replacement. The testing will include several non-invasive measures of brain representations of the quadriceps muscles, central pain mechanisms, and motor function and questionnaires. Will I be paid to take part in the research study? You will be reimbursed ($50.00 per session) for travel and parking expenses associated with the research study visits. If you would like more information or are interested in being part of the study, please contact: Name: Dr Wei-Ju Chang Email: w.chang@neura.edu.au Phone: 02 9399 1260 This research is being funded by the Physiotherapy Research Foundation.  
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