NeuRA Magazine #22

5 minutes with…

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR MELISSA GREEN

Assoc Prof Melissa Green is leading research to discover how stress-related mechanisms disrupt brain maturation early in life, setting off a cascade of effects which impede normal cognitive and emotional development.

Her research uses neuroscience methods to examine the biological effects of stress among adults with severe mental disorders, as well as complementary methods from epidemiology to understand the mechanisms of mental disorder in developing children.

Victims of early childhood maltreatment are among those at highest risk of developing mental disorders. Assoc Prof Green’s newly funded project, conducted in collaboration with the NSW Government Department of Family and Community Services (FACS), will determine dynamic states of ‘risk’ and ‘resilience’ for mental disorders among children who have been maltreated before the age of 5 years.

Assoc Prof Green said, “The first few years of life represent the most rapid period of brain development, with increased plasticity of the brain making it highly sensitive to prolonged stress. Exposure to stress at this stage in the life-course may critically influence brain development in ways which put children at risk of developing mental disorders in later life.”

The new project was funded by the Australian Rotary Health’s ‘Mental Health of Young Australians’ scheme and is embedded within the NSW Child Development Study (NSW-CDS), led by Prof Vaughan Carr (UNSW and NeuRA).

This study uses repeated waves of longitudinal record linkage to follow a population cohort of approximately 87,000 children as they develop through middle childhood, adolescence, and into young adulthood.

The Rotary funded project will continue to use this routinely collected government data alongside cross-sectional surveys that were administered to the NSW-CDS child cohort at age 5 and 11 years, to determine patterns of ‘risk’ and ‘resilience’ which are evident in childhood competencies or developmental vulnerabilities. Childhood competencies will include social and emotional functioning, as well as cognitive achievements, for which normative skill levels can be determined in the general population.

The team are particularly interested in determining protective factors
(e.g. availability of family and school supports) which are associated with ‘resilience’ profiles among maltreated children, in contrast to factors which confer this persistent risk profile across early and middle years of childhood. Findings from the study will be used to make policy recommendations regarding the earliest detection of children at risk of mental disorder, and will determine targets for timely interventions to promote life-long resilience in children who are subjected to early-life adversity.

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FEEL THE BUZZ IN THE AIR? US TOO.

During three decades on Australian television, two simple words brought us to attention.

‘Hello daaaahling’. Outrageous, flamboyant, iconic – Jeanne Little captivated Australians everywhere with her unique style, cockatoo shrill voice and fashion sense. "Mum wasn't just the life of the party, she was the party.” Katie Little, Jeanne’s daughter remembers. This icon of Australian television brought a smile into Australian homes. Tragically, today Jeanne can't walk, talk or feed herself. She doesn't recognise anyone, with a random sound or laugh the only glimpse of who she truly is. Jeanne Little has Alzheimer's disease. The 1,000 Brains Study NeuRA is very excited to announce the 1,000 Brains Study, a ground-breaking research project to identify the elements in our brains that cause life-changing neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other dementias. This study will focus on the key unresolved question: why do some of us develop devastating neurodegenerative diseases, while others retain good brain health? The study will compare the genomes of people who have reached old age with healthy brains against the genomes of those who have died from neurodegenerative diseases, with post mortem examination of brain tissue taking place at NeuRA’s Sydney Brain Bank. More information on the study can be found here. Will you please support dementia research and the 1,000 Brains Study and help drive the future of genetics research in Australia? https://youtu.be/q7fTZIisgAY
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