Digitally created image of brain in skull



The Motor Neurone Disease Behaviour Scale (MiND)

The Motor Neurone Disease Behaviour Scale (MiND-B) is a valid, sensitive and short instrument that detects and quantifies behavioural changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). It measures three behavioural domains: apathy, disinhibition and stereotypical behaviour. The questionnaire contains 9 questions with a total score of 36, which higher scores denoting absence or very mild behavioural symptoms. The MiND-B can be completed by a caregiver/family member or clinician.

The MiND instrument and scoring guide can be downloaded below:

MiND-B Administration (PDF)
MiND-B Scoring Guide (PDF)

Wear, H.J., et al., The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory revised. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 2008. 2(2): p. 102-107.
Neumann, M., et al., Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science, 2006. 314(5796): p. 130-3.
Lillo, P., et al., Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: A behavioural and cognitive continuum. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 2012. 13(1): p. 102-9.
Lillo, P., et al., Grey and white matter changes across the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum. PLoS ONE, 2012. 7(8): p. e43993.
Stewart, H., et al., Clinical and pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutation in the C9ORF72 gene on chromosome 9p. Acta Neuropathologica, 2012. 123(3): p. 409-17.
Mioshi, E., et al., Neuropsychiatric changes precede classic motor symptoms in ALS and do not affect survival. Neurology, 2014. 82(2): p. 149-55.
Mioshi, E., et al., A novel tool to detect behavioural symptoms in ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener, 2014. 15(3-4): p. 298-304.
Hsieh, S., et al., The Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination: A new assessment tool for dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 2014. 39(1-2): p. 1-11.

See what’s going on at NeuRA


Abdominal muscle stimulation to improve bowel function in spinal cord injury

Bowel complications, resulting from impaired bowel function, are common for people living with a spinal cord injury (SCI). As a result, people with a SCI have high rates of bowel related illness, even compared with those with other neurological disorders. This includes high rates of abdominal pain, constipation, faecal incontinence and bloating. These problems lower the quality of life of people with a SCI and place a financial burden on the health system. A treatment that improves bowel function for people with a SCI should reduce illness, improve quality of life and lead to a large cost saving for health care providers. Bowel problems have traditionally been managed with manual and pharmacological interventions, such as digital rectal stimulation, enemas, and suppositories. These solutions are usually only partially effective, highlighting the need for improved interventions. The abdominal muscles are one of the major muscle groups used during defecation. Training the abdominal muscles should improve bowel function by increasing abdominal pressure. During our previous Abdominal FES research with people with a SCI, we observed that Abdominal FES appeared to lead to more consistent and effective bowel motion. However, this evidence remains anecdotal. As such, we are going to undertake a large randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Abdominal FES to improve the bowel function of people with a SCI. This study will make use of a novel measurement system (SmartPill, Medtronic) that can be swallowed to measure whole gut and colonic transit time. We will also assess whether Abdominal FES can change constipation-related quality of life and the use of laxatives and manual procedures, as well as the frequency of defecation and the time taken. A positive outcome from this study is likely to lead to the rapid clinical translation of this technology for people living with a SCI.