Sensory inputs are crucial to drive movement, whether this be controlling the finger and thumb to hold a pen, moving arms to gesture, or using breathing muscles to speak. We are examining how the sensory system works, how it affects the motor output from the brain, and how it gives us an accurate ‘sensory’ map of the external world, allowing us to make accurate movements.
Maintaining balance is a complex act of processing sensory information and coordination. We are exploring the effects of vision, sensation and vestibular function on balance. We are also investigating the physiology and biomechanics of walking, stepping reactions and trips, and are looking at the risk factors for falls to develop strategies to prevent them.
Breathing requires the coordination of many muscles and control systems in the brain. Our research examines the way the brain controls breathing muscles in health and in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, spinal cord injury and obstructive sleep apnoea.
Simon Gandevia (MD PhD DSc FAA FRACP) trained at the University of New South Wales and the Prince Henry Hospital. He has broad research interests in human movement control and he has used a wide range of techniques to examine fundamental aspects of pathophysiology in human neuroscience and clinical medicine. His work often sits at the interface between medicine and basic human neurophysiology.Professor Gandevia is one of the four Founding Scientists of the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute (in 1992), which was later renamed NeuRA. He was also a founder of the 3T Clinical Research Imaging Centre and is a Clinical Neurophysiologist at the Prince of Wales Hospital. He has served on many editorial boards, including the Journal of Physiology (1993-2000; 2011-) and is currently a Senior Editor. He is currently Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Physiology (since 2005). His clinical work includes patients with neuromuscular disorders and those with spinal cord injury.
Her research interests are twofold: (i) understanding risk factors for falls in older people and clinical groups (Parkinson’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis), and: (ii) investigating sensory, cognitive and neuromuscular factors contributing to postural stability, stepping and gait in aging and clinical populations (Parkinson’s disease, neurodevelopmental disorders). In addition to conducting mechanistic studies of gait and balance, Jasmine has also been coordinating several prospective falls risk cohort studies of older adults and a large NHMRC-funded randomised controlled trial of multifaceted interventions to improve dizziness symptoms in older adults.
Dr McCaughey is seeking to generate research evidence and technology that assists the clinical translation of Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation to improve respiratory function in a number of patient groups.
Current studies include investigation of the relationship between the mechanics and neural control in respiratory and limb muscles using ultrasound and EMG and of sensorimotor cortical control of the respiratory muscles in healthy subjects and in patients with respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnoea and asthma using EEG.
Lara is an epidemiologist with interest and expertise in epidemiological methods, the analysis of large population-based administrative datasets including linked data, health economic evaluation and survey methodology. Her research areas of interest include population-based trends in injury and the evaluation of health care policies and health and safety-related regulations/legislation.
Associate Professor Gustin uses brain imaging techniques and psychological assessment to investigate the central and psychological circuits underlying chronic pain in humans. Her aim is to increase our understanding of the development and maintenance of chronic pain, in particular psychological and central components and their association with each other. And most importantly to develop and evaluate novel interventions that can provide pain relief via the primary source of pain: the brain.
Our research includes studies to understand motor, cognitive and neural changes with age, their contributions to balance and fall risk, and trials of novel training methods to prevent falls.
Dr Schabrun and her team are exploring the contribution of brain plasticity (‘rewiring’) and other biological factors (hormones, genetics) to the development of persistent pain.
Our research is focused on low back pain, the leading cause of disability worldwide and the most common reason for chronic pain.
Muscle fatigue with exercise is a common experience in healthy people. It is a prominent symptom in people with many kinds of illnesses, including neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, psychiatric and other debilitating disorders. Although processes in the muscle cause some of the weakness of fatigue, processes in the nervous system also contribute to weakness, as well as providing the sensations of fatigue. Understanding the contribution of the nervous system to fatigue will allow better management of this symptom in illness. In addition, study of the nervous system during exercise and fatigue gives insight into the processes by which the motor system adapts to allow successful interaction with the environment.
In addition to more broad sleep physiology interests, the key focus of our sleep research program at NeuRA is to investigate the multiple causes of sleep apnoea and develop and test new, targeted therapeutic approaches for individual patients.
Accidental falls are a major contributor to the burden of disease in older people and a major public health problem. In our overarching aims around identification of common fall risk factors and the development of feasible fall prevention strategies, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach on healthy ageing and falls in older people.
Our research examines the mechanisms of contracture in human muscles using novel biomechanical methods. We also conduct epidemiological studies to quantify the prevalence and incidence of contracture, and predict people who are most likely to develop contracture, and we conduct clinical trials to investigate the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent and treat contracture.
Control of balance is vital to everyday life. Maintaining balance involves complex processing of peripheral sensory information and precise coordination of motor responses. Our research aims to enhance understanding of human balance and involves investigations of sensory and motor contributions, central processing, behavioural influences in older people and clinical populations with balance impairments. Current studies are investigating stepping responses required for fall avoidance, gait adaptability for obstacle negotiation and the causes of dizziness, .We are also using new technologies (exergame step training and remote sensor monitoring) in large fall prevention clinical trials in older people and people with dementia, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis.
Because neural drive is elevated in many respiratory diseases, our longer term aim is to understand the changes that occur with respiratory disorders, which may lead to new diagnostic methods and treatment approaches.
The Falls and Injury Prevention Group was set up in 2011 and has three specific domains of activity: Fall-related injury epidemiology, applied research and evaluation of models of care, disease/syndrome specific research looking pathology and fall-related injury in older people
The vestibular organ can be damaged by disease, degenerative conditions and by chemical or surgical interventions. When both vestibular organs are damaged it can be severely debilitating. The research in this laboratory has two closely related goals: 1) to understand vestibular mechanisms of plasticity that control the VOR under normal conditions (adaptation) and after injury (compensation) by analysing vestibular-evoked (ie VOR) eye movements; and 2) to apply this knowledge of basic vestibular physiology to the treatment and rehabilitation of VOR disorders in humans.