Dr Claire Shepherd in Brain Bank lab

Sydney Brain Bank


Update on Parkinson’s disease studies using brain tissue

Several interesting and diverse clinicopathological studies (where disease information is correlated with pathology) have been performed recently with the information available to us from our brain donors. One such study looked at the progression of pathology in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and found that in most cases the progression is not rapid at all but rather it takes more than 13 years (on average) before a phase of the disease with a more rapid decline commences. Fewer than 10% of patients have a more rapid decline and future studies need to investigate these patients more closely to try and identify what it is that causes this and how these patients can be identified early in their disease course. Another study found that 83% of individuals with PD will develop some degree of dementia after 20 years. This may seem a rather depressing statistic, but in bringing awareness to the community it gives people with PD and their carers the opportunity to think ahead and prepare for what may happen in the future.

Studies examining the pathology alone of brain tissue have also provided some interesting insights into disease mechanisms. One region of the brain that is particularly targeted by abnormal protein deposits in Lewy body diseases (that is, PD, PD with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies) is the intralaminar thalamus. This region contains several subregions, called nuclei, which were shown in a recent study to have specific patterns of cell and tissue loss and accumulations of Lewy bodies that relate to the severity of Lewy body pathology throughout the rest of the brain, aging and the presence of dementia and visual hallucinations.

DNA studies examining normal differences in genes that a certain percentage of the population has (known as polymorphisms) have found that polymorphisms in genes responsible for inherited PD can cause either an increased or decreased risk of developing PD, depending on which one of the gene is involved. Another polymorphism associated with a familial PD gene has been found to affect the age of onset of the disease.

Update on studies using brain tissue from other Parkinsonian disorders

Another subset of rarer movement disorders are multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A project using tissue from donors with MSA has demonstrated that a protein present in Lewy bodies called LRRK2 was also present early in the formation of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI), the pathological characteristic of MSA. LRRK2 may be an important factor in the disease as its expression increased with the amount of GCIs, myelin degradation and cell loss. PSP can be difficult to treat as it often exhibits an unsatisfactory response to levadopa therapy. More widespread loss of cells of the extranigral A10 region of the substantia nigra was recently discovered (compared to PD cases, who usually have an adequate response to levadopa), indicating that these cells may be required for a good response to levadopa therapy.

See what’s going on at NeuRA


The cold case of schizophrenia - broken wide open!

‘It is like they were miraculously healed!’’ Schizophrenia is diagnosed by clinical observation of behaviour and speech. This is why NeuRA researchers are working hard to understand the biological basis of the illness. Through hours of work and in collaboration with doctors and scientists here and around the world, NeuRA has made an amazing breakthrough. For the first time, researchers have discovered the presence of antibodies in the brains of people who lived with schizophrenia. Having found these antibodies, it has led NeuRA researchers to ask two questions. What are they doing there? What should we do about the antibodies– help or remove them? This is a key breakthrough. Imagine if we are treating schizophrenia all wrong! It is early days, but can you imagine the treatment implications if we’ve identified a new biological basis for the disease? It could completely change the way schizophrenia is managed, creating new treatments that will protect the brain. More than this, could we be on the verge of discovering a ‘curable’ form of schizophrenia? How you can help We are so grateful for your loyal support of schizophrenia research in Australia, and today I ask if you will consider a gift today. Or, to provide greater confidence, consider becoming a Discovery Partner by making a monthly commitment. We believe there is great potential to explore these findings. Will you help move today’s breakthrough into tomorrow’s cure? To read more about this breakthrough, click ‘read the full story’ below. You are also invited to read ‘Beth’s story’, whose sweet son Marcus lived with schizophrenia, by clicking here.