Associate Professor Justine M Gatt

PUBLICATIONS

Electroencephalography profiles as a biomarker of wellbeing: A twin study.

Chilver MR, Keller AS, Park HRP, Jamshidi J, Montalto A, Schofield PR, Clark CR, Harmon-Jones E, Williams LM, Gatt JM

Trauma, Resilience, and Mental Health in Migrant and Non-Migrant Youth: An International Cross-Sectional Study Across Six Countries.

Gatt JM, Alexander R, Emond A, Foster K, Hadfield K, Mason-Jones A, Reid S, Theron L, Ungar M, Wouldes TA, Wu Q

Corrigendum to "Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma" [J. Psychiatr. Res. 78 (2016) 31-41].

Chu DA, Bryant RA, Gatt JM, Harris AWF

Cumulative childhood interpersonal trauma is associated with reduced cortical differentiation between threat and non-threat faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults.

Chu DA, Bryant RA, Gatt JM, Harris AW

Posttraumatic stress disorder and childhood trauma frequently co-occur. Both are associated with abnormal neural responses to salient emotion stimuli. As childhood trauma is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder, differentiating between their neurophysiological effects is necessary to elucidate the neural pathways by which childhood trauma exposure contributes to increased posttraumatic stress disorder risks. Childhood interpersonal trauma exposure is associated with reduced discrimination between fear and happy faces, while avoidance symptom severity is associated with dampened responsivity to automatically processed happy faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults. Results are discussed in terms of the likely contributions of impaired threat discrimination and deficient reward processing during neural processing of salient emotion stimuli, to increased risks of posttraumatic stress disorder onset and chronicity in childhood interpersonal trauma-exposed adults.

Corrigendum: Centeredness Theory: Understanding and Measuring Well-Being Across Core Life Domains.

Bloch-Jorgensen ZT, Cilione PJ, Yeung WWH, Gatt JM

What does the grey matter decrease in the medial prefrontal cortex reflect in people with chronic pain?

Kang D, McAuley JH, Kassem MS, Gatt JM, Gustin SM

Alterations in the grey matter volume of several brain regions have been reported in people with chronic pain. The most consistent observation is a decrease in grey matter volume in the medial prefrontal cortex. These findings are important as the medial prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in emotional and cognitive processing in chronic pain. Although a logical cause of grey matter volume decrease may be neurodegeneration, this is not supported by the current evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the existing literature to unravel what the decrease in medial prefrontal cortex grey matter volume in people with chronic pain may represent on a biochemical and cellular level. Our model proposes new mechanisms in chronic pain pathophysiology responsible for mPFC grey matter loss as alternatives to neurodegeneration.

Acculturation, resilience, and the mental health of migrant youth: a cross-country comparative study.

Wu Q, Ge T, Emond A, Foster K, Gatt JM, Hadfield K, Mason-Jones AJ, Reid S, Theron L, Ungar M, Wouldes TA

Using data from an international collaborative research project on youth resilience in the context of migration, this study aims to investigate how different acculturation patterns (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) influence the mental health of migrant youth, and whether resilience might function as a mediator in the association between acculturation and mental health. Acculturation plays a significant role in the mental health of migrant youth, with different acculturative orientations exhibiting different influences through the mediation effect of resilience. Fostering resilience and facilitating integration-oriented acculturation are recommended public health strategies for migrant youth.

A negative association between brainstem pontine grey-matter volume, well-being and resilience in healthy twins.

Gatt JM, Burton KLO, Routledge KM, Grasby KL, Korgaonkar MS, Grieve SM, Schofield PR, Harris AWF, Clark CR, Williams LM

Associations with altered grey matter of the pontine nuclei suggest that basic sensory processes, such as arousal, startle, memory consolidation and/or emotional conditioning, may have a role in well-being and resilience.

Centeredness Theory: Understanding and Measuring Well-Being Across Core Life Domains.

Bloch-Jorgensen ZT, Cilione PJ, Yeung WWH, Gatt JM

Genetic correlations between wellbeing, depression and anxiety symptoms and behavioral responses to the emotional faces task in healthy twins.

Routledge KM, Williams LM, Harris AWF, Schofield PR, Clark CR, Gatt JM

Cumulative childhood interpersonal trauma is associated with reduced cortical differentiation between threat and non-threat faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults.

Chu DA, Bryant RA, Gatt JM, Harris AW

Posttraumatic stress disorder and childhood trauma frequently co-occur. Both are associated with abnormal neural responses to salient emotion stimuli. As childhood trauma is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder, differentiating between their neurophysiological effects is necessary to elucidate the neural pathways by which childhood trauma exposure contributes to increased posttraumatic stress disorder risks. Childhood interpersonal trauma exposure is associated with reduced discrimination between fear and happy faces, while avoidance symptom severity is associated with dampened responsivity to automatically processed happy faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults. Results are discussed in terms of the likely contributions of impaired threat discrimination and deficient reward processing during neural processing of salient emotion stimuli, to increased risks of posttraumatic stress disorder onset and chronicity in childhood interpersonal trauma-exposed adults.

Quantifying person-level brain network functioning to facilitate clinical translation.

Ball TM, Goldstein-Piekarski AN, Gatt JM, Williams LM

Genetic and environmental influences on emotion regulation: A twin study of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression.

McRae K, Rhee SH, Gatt JM, Godinez D, Williams LM, Gross JJ

The shared and unique genetic relationship between mental well-being, depression and anxiety symptoms and cognitive function in healthy twins.

Routledge KM, Burton KLO, Williams LM, Harris A, Schofield PR, Clark CR, Gatt JM

Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

Routledge KM, Burton KL, Williams LM, Harris A, Schofield PR, Clark CR, Gatt JM

EEG alpha asymmetry as a gender-specific predictor of outcome to acute treatment with different antidepressant medications in the randomized iSPOT-D study.

Arns M, Bruder G, Hegerl U, Spooner C, Palmer DM, Etkin A, Fallahpour K, Gatt JM, Hirshberg L, Gordon E

To determine whether EEG occipital alpha and frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) distinguishes outpatients with major depression (MDD) from controls, predicts antidepressant treatment outcome, and to explore the role of gender. FAA does not differentiate between MDD and controls, but is associated with antidepressant treatment response and remission in a gender and drug-class specific manner.

Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

Chu DA, Bryant RA, Gatt JM, Harris AW

Sex differences in the shared genetics of dimensions of self-reported depression and anxiety.

Burton KL, Williams LM, Richard Clark C, Harris A, Schofield PR, Gatt JM

Differences in males and females in genetic aetiology of self-reported dimensions of depression are only apparent when taking into consideration the covariation with self-reported anxiety. This difference is highlighted by the finding that both common and specific genetic factors contribute to self-reported depression in females but not males. This novel finding may help explain the increased incidence of depression symptoms in females.

Cognitive and emotional biomarkers of melancholic depression: An iSPOT-D report.

Day CV, Gatt JM, Etkin A, DeBattista C, Schatzberg AF, Williams LM

Melancholic MDD is distinguished by a specific neurocognitive marker profile consistent with reduced decision-making capacity under time demands and loss of reward sensitivity. This profile suggests an underlying deficit in mesolimbic-cortical circuitry for motivationally-directed behavior.

Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: a review of meta-analysis studies.

Gatt JM, Burton KL, Williams LM, Schofield PR

Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene is associated with increased risk for anxiety, stress and depression in individuals with a history of exposure to early life stress.

Myers AJ, Williams L, Gatt JM, McAuley-Clark EZ, Dobson-Stone C, Schofield PR, Nemeroff CB

These results support the hypothesis that the oxytocin system plays a role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders.

Establishing the resting state default mode network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks as an endophenotype: A twins study.

Korgaonkar MS, Ram K, Williams LM, Gatt JM, Grieve SM

The heritability of mental health and wellbeing defined using COMPAS-W, a new composite measure of wellbeing.

Gatt JM, Burton KL, Schofield PR, Bryant RA, Williams LM

Early exposure to traumatic stressors impairs emotional brain circuitry.

Korgaonkar MS, Antees C, Williams LM, Gatt JM, Bryant RA, Cohen R, Paul R, O'Hara R, Grieve SM

Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure.

Chu DA, Williams LM, Harris AW, Bryant RA, Gatt JM

Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the "Brief Risk-resilience Index for SCreening," a brief pan-diagnostic web screen for emotional health.

Williams LM, Cooper NJ, Wisniewski SR, Gatt JM, Koslow SH, Kulkarni J, Devarney S, Gordon E, John Rush A

The TWIN-E project in emotional wellbeing: study protocol and preliminary heritability results across four MRI and DTI measures.

Gatt JM, Korgaonkar MS, Schofield PR, Harris A, Clark CR, Oakley KL, Ram K, Michaelson H, Yap S, Stanners M, Wise V, Williams LM

Resting posterior versus frontal delta/theta EEG activity is associated with extraversion and the COMT VAL(158)MET polymorphism.

Wacker J, Gatt JM

Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: a review and meta-analysis.

Kemp AH, Quintana DS, Gray MA, Felmingham KL, Brown K, Gatt JM

Depression without CVD is associated with reduced HRV, which decreases with increasing depression severity, most apparent with nonlinear measures of HRV. Critically, a variety of antidepressant treatments do not resolve these decreases despite resolution of symptoms, highlighting that antidepressant medications might not have HRV-mediated cardioprotective effects and the need to identify individuals at risk among patients in remission.

Early life stress combined with serotonin 3A receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor valine 66 to methionine genotypes impacts emotional brain and arousal correlates of risk for depression.

Gatt JM, Nemeroff CB, Schofield PR, Paul RH, Clark CR, Gordon E, Williams LM

The findings provide new evidence that these gene-stress susceptibility factors contribute to a brain-arousal profile indicative of risk for depression. They are a step toward identifying biological markers for detecting risk before overt symptoms. It would be valuable for future studies to examine comorbidity and specificity issues; for instance, whether these gene-stress factors contribute in different ways to the partially distinct EEG asymmetry profiles found with anxiety.

Impact of the HTR3A gene with early life trauma on emotional brain networks and depressed mood.

Gatt JM, Williams LM, Schofield PR, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Grieve SM, Clark CR, Gordon E, Nemeroff CB

These findings suggest that the HTR3A CC genotype may be associated with alterations in brain structures central to emotion processing, particularly when exposed to stress, and further highlight the potential role of the serotonin system in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. In contrast, those individuals with the T allele, in particular the TT genotype, may be more protected from such alterations combined with minimal exposure to ELS events.

COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function and negativity bias.

Williams LM, Gatt JM, Grieve SM, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Gordon E, Schofield PR

'Negativity bias' in risk for depression and anxiety: brain-body fear circuitry correlates, 5-HTT-LPR and early life stress.

Williams LM, Gatt JM, Schofield PR, Olivieri G, Peduto A, Gordon E

Disturbances in selective information processing associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: evidence from cognition, the P300 and fronto-hippocampal systems.

Schofield PR, Williams LM, Paul RH, Gatt JM, Brown K, Luty A, Cooper N, Grieve S, Dobson-Stone C, Morris C, Kuan SA, Gordon E

Brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism, the five factor model of personality and hippocampal volume: Implications for depressive illness.

Joffe RT, Gatt JM, Kemp AH, Grieve S, Dobson-Stone C, Kuan SA, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Williams LM

Interactions between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress predict brain and arousal pathways to syndromal depression and anxiety.

Gatt JM, Nemeroff CB, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Bryant RA, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Kemp AH, Williams LM

A polymorphism of the MAOA gene is associated with emotional brain markers and personality traits on an antisocial index.

Williams LM, Gatt JM, Kuan SA, Dobson-Stone C, Palmer DM, Paul RH, Song L, Costa PT, Schofield PR, Gordon E

Association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and trait depression is mediated via resting EEG alpha band activity.

Gatt JM, Kuan SA, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Joffe RT, Kemp AH, Gordon E, Schofield PR, Williams LM

The integrate model of emotion, thinking and self regulation: an application to the "paradox of aging".

Williams LM, Gatt JM, Hatch A, Palmer DM, Nagy M, Rennie C, Cooper NJ, Morris C, Grieve S, Dobson-Stone C, Schofield P, Clark CR, Gordon E, Arns M, Paul RH

10-05 Genotypes and neural binding in negative affect: the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to 40 Hz gamma phase synchrony.

Gatt JM, Kuan S, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Williams LM

A genotype-endophenotype-phenotype path model of depressed mood: integrating cognitive and emotional markers.

Gatt JM, Clark CR, Kemp AH, Liddell BJ, Dobson-Stone C, Kuan SA, Schofield PR, Williams LM

Investigation of MCPH1 G37995C and ASPM A44871G polymorphisms and brain size in a healthy cohort.

Dobson-Stone C, Gatt JM, Kuan SA, Grieve SM, Gordon E, Williams LM, Schofield PR

Integrating objective gene-brain-behavior markers of psychiatric disorders.

Gordon E, Liddell BJ, Brown KJ, Bryant R, Clark CR, DAS P, Dobson-Stone C, Falconer E, Felmingham K, Flynn G, Gatt JM, Harris A, Hermens DF, Hopkinson PJ, Kemp AH, Kuan SA, Lazzaro I, Moyle J, Paul RH, Rennie CJ, Schofield P, Whitford T, Williams LM

10-01 Understanding genotype-phenotype relationships using the Brain Resource International Database: Implications for psychiatric conditions.

Dobson-Stone C, Gatt JM, Kuan S, Paul RH, Gordon E, Williams LM, Schofield PR

10-03 Identifying pathways to depressed mood and cognitive dysfunction: the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress.

Gatt JM, Kuan S, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Williams LM

10-02 The neurodevelopmental effects of apolipoprotein E alleles on brain function.

Alexander DM, Gatt JM, Kuan S, Dobson-Stone C, Todd EG, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Williams LM

10-04 Identifying markers of negative mood: the gender-specific influence of COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms on emotion processing.

Kuan SA, Gatt JM, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Williams LM

10-05 Genotypes and neural binding in negative affect: the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to 40 Hz gamma phase synchrony.

Gatt JM, Kuan S, Dobson-Stone C, Paul RH, Schofield PR, Gordon E, Williams LM