Inaccurate reach judgement predicts future falls and is associated with poorer global cognitive performance and executive function, increased concern about falling, slower reaction time and poorer balance. Our results offer insight into the disparity between actual and perceived physical capabilities in people with CI, and how this impacts their risk of falling.
Concurrent validity of the CBM was good when compared to the FAB and moderate to good when compared to other measures of balance and mobility. Based on this study, the CBM can be recommended to measure balance and mobility performance in the specific population of young-older adults.
Being out-of-home increases daily walking duration. The association is strongest if the time out-of-home is 100 min or less.
The aim was 1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the CBM into the German language and 2) to investigate the measurement properties of the German CBM (G-CBM). The G‑CBM is a valid and reliable tool for measuring subtle balance deficits in older high-functioning adults. The absence of ceiling effects emphasizes the use of this scale in this cohort. The G‑CBM can now be utilized in clinical practice.
To identify predictors and impact of adherence to a multifactorial fall-prevention program on falls and health service utilisation. Older adults who adhere to recommendations benefit, regardless of fall-risk profile.
This study aimed to document change in neuropsychological, physical and functional performance over one year and to investigate the relationship between baseline gait speed and cognitive decline in this period in older people with dementia. Older people with mild to moderate dementia demonstrate significant decline in neuropsychological, physical and functional performance over one year. Baseline gait speed is associated with decline in executive function over one year, suggesting shared pathways/pathology between gait and cognition.
to evaluate the impact of a fall-risk assessment and tailored fall prevention interventions among older community-dwellers not transported to ED following a fall on subsequent falls and health service use. a multidisciplinary intervention did not prevent falls in older people who received paramedic care but were not transported to ED. However the intervention was effective in those who adhered to the recommendations.
To explore the relationship between cognitive performance and falls in older people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment (CI) by investigating the mediational effects of medical, medication, neuropsychological, and physiological factors. Within this sample of older people with mild to moderate CI, poorer EF increased the risk of multiple falls. This relationship was mediated by reaction time and postural sway,suggesting cognitively impaired older people with poorer EF may benefit from fall prevention programs targeting these mediating factors.
This study identified several risk factors of falls in older people with cognitive impairment, a number of which are potentially modifiable. Future research involving targeted interventions addressing medication use, balance, mood, and functional performance may prove useful for fall prevention in this population.
Limited but promising evidence shows that appropriate interventions can improve health outcomes of non-transported older people who have fallen. Further studies are needed to explore alternate care pathways and promote more efficient use of health services.
This prospective cohort study describes older non-transported fallers seen by the Ambulance Service of New South Wales (ASNSW), quantifies the level of risk and identifies predictors of future falls and ambulance use. Older, non-transported fallers seen by the ASNSW are a vulnerable population with high rates of chronic health conditions.
To investigate the discriminative ability and diagnostic accuracy of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) as a clinical screening instrument for identifying older people at risk of falling. The findings suggest that the TUG is not useful for discriminating fallers from non-fallers in healthy, high-functioning older people but is of more value in less-healthy, lower-functioning older people. Overall, the predictive ability and diagnostic accuracy of the TUG are at best moderate. No cut-point can be recommended. Quick, multifactorial fall risk screens should be considered to provide additional information for identifying older people at risk of falls.
These findings indicate poor performance on physiological fall risk factors, particularly balance, increases the risk of falls in older cognitively impaired people.
Fall risk in the CIG was significantly increased due to multiple physical impairments. Physical profiles provide a means of quantifying the extent of impairment in older people with cognitive impairment and potential direction for targeting interventions for reducing fall risk.
to explore the associations between spatiotemporal gait parameters and falls in cognitively impaired older people and to investigate whether sensorimotor and neuropsychological factors mediate the association between gait performance and falls. the findings indicate that slow and variable gait patterns increase the risk of falls in cognitively impaired older adults. Further, the association between gait and falls seems to be mediated in large by reduced sensorimotor functioning. Further research is needed to investigate whether interventions aimed at improving gait and/or sensorimotor fall risk factors, such as strength and balance, can prevent falls in cognitively impaired older adults.
this study aimed to perform a comprehensive validation of the 16-item and 7-item Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) by investigating the overall structure and measurement properties, convergent and predictive validity and responsiveness to change. the current study builds on the previously established psychometric properties of the FES-I. Both scales have acceptable structures, good validity and reliability and can be recommended for research and clinical purposes. Future studies should explore the FES-I's responsiveness to change during intervention studies and confirm suggested cut-points in other settings, larger samples and across different cultures.